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A major carbon sink

Forests not only store carbon above ground through photosynthesis, but also enrich soil and promote biodiversity below ground through decaying debris, creating a natural carbon cycle.

Main threats


Indiscriminate deforestation, particularly in tropical countries, is causing fragile ecosystems such as the Amazon to reach an irreversible tipping point. It undermines the ability of forests to absorb carbon, releases potent greenhouse gases and can lead to soil losing fertility, requiring more deforestation to make way for pastures and plantations.


Changes in climate have led to an increase in duration and severity of forest fires. These fires can destroy large areas of forest, depleting soil of nutrients, leaving it vulnerable to pests unless heavily fertilised and exposed to agrochemicals.

Insects, pests & diseases

Deforestation, fires and climatic changes not only harm the overstory but also soil quality, making forests more susceptible to insects, pests, and diseases. Soil health is tied to overall forest health and resilience to disturbances such as fire and climatic conditions.

Key solutions

Laws and regulations carbon soil

Laws and regulations

Prohibiting illegal logging and land clearance.
Sustainable forestry practices

Sustainable forestry practices

Allowing for the responsible management and harvesting of forest resources.
national parks safeguard

Creation of protected areas

Designating national parks and wilderness areas, to safeguard forests and their wildlife.
Pest Management Agricultural Lands

Early detection of pests and diseases

Implementing rapid response measures when they are identified.

Fire management

Making use of fire management practices such as fire breaks, controlled burning, and educating people about the dangers of wildfires.
Trees Forest Soil Carbon

Reforestation and afforestation

Restoring degraded forests and increasing the overall forested area via dedicated programs.
Community-based conservation programs

Community-based conservation programs

Involving local people in the management and protection of forests.
mangroves restoration biodiversity

Restoration of wetlands and grasslands

Using ecosystems, especially those with high water content, as buffers to protect forests from fires and pests.
Technology satellite imagery drones

Use of technology

Detecting and monitoring forest changes by using satellite imagery, drones, and sensor networks.